Datapoint Early Sranan/Predicative noun phrases and predicative locative phrases

Overlap:
- the copula may be absent with noun phrases and with locative phrases;
- de appears with noun phrases and with locative phrases;
- da appears with noun phrases but not with locative phrases.
Here we ignore the use of dya as locative copula in Nepveu (1770) and Weygandt (1798) (see Feature 75 "Predicative locative phrases").

Values

Overlap

Example 1-175:
Da dago wan hondiman, a sabi va hondi.
Da
det.sg
dago
dog
wan
indf.sg
ontiman,
hunter
a
3sg.sbj
sabi
know
fu
to
onti.
hunt
That dog is a hunter, it knows how to hunt.
German: Das ist ein Jagdhund. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 26

Example 1-6:
Hoe ply slotelen fo jarri?
O-pe
q-place
sroto
key
fu
of
dyari?
garden
Where is the key of the garden?
Dutch: Waar is de Sleutel van de Thuyn? [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 43

Example 1-179:
Mi de wan muffina, mi no ha bakka, mi no ha fesi.
Mi
1sg
de
cop
wan
indf.sg
mofina,
miserable
mi
1sg
no
neg
ha
have
baka,
back
mi
1sg
no
neg
ha
have
fesi.
face
I'm a miserable person, I don't know which way to turn.
German: Ich bin ein elender Mensch, ich weiss weder aus noch ein, ich bin ganz verlassen. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 117

Example 1-15:
Heddi va dissi riba de na dem heh bergi bakka.
Hede
head
fu
of
disi
this
riba
river
de
cop
na
loc
den
det.pl
hei
high
bergi
mountain
baka.
back
The source of this river is behind those high mountains.
German: Der Ursprung dieses Flusses ist hinter den hohen Bergen. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 127

Example 1-176:
Bekassi da direkture a za kili mi lange gon liki mi da ron negere.
Bikasi
because
da
det.sg
driktoro
manager
a
3sg.sbj
sa
fut
kiri
kill
mi
1sg
nanga
with
gon
gun
leki
like
mi
1sg
da
cop
ron-nengre.
run-negro
Because the manager would kill me with his gun as if I were a runaway slave.
Dutch: Want hy zou myn als een Weglooper aanmerken en Dood Schieten. [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 89

Confidence:
Certain