Datapoint Early Sranan/Predicative locative phrases

Normally there is a copula, de (< English there) (cf. Value 1). However, in interrogative clauses involving a predicative locative phrase, de is often not present. Such copula-less interrogatives are found in various sources.

The copula de does not appear before the adverb dya 'there', a fusion of de (< English there) and ya 'here'.
Nepveu (1770) and Weygandt (1798) occasionally use dya as a copula followed by a locative phrase (ignored with respect to Feature 76 "Predicative noun phrases and predicative locative phrases")

(Note that Modern Sranan is classified as value 1, although in fact the conditions for non-use of the copula may be similar.)

Values

Variable copula

Example 1-15:
Heddi va dissi riba de na dem heh bergi bakka.
Hede
head
fu
of
disi
this
riba
river
de
cop
na
loc
den
det.pl
hei
high
bergi
mountain
baka.
back
The source of this river is behind those high mountains.
German: Der Ursprung dieses Flusses ist hinter den hohen Bergen. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 127

Example 1-152:
Gongosaman de jette na une middri.
Gongosaman
hypocrite
de
cop
ete
still
na
loc
unu
2pl
mindri.
middle
There are still hypocrites amongst you.
German: Es gibt unter euch noch Heuchler. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 127

Example 1-153:
No wan hai watra dea.
No
neg
wan
one
ai
eye
watra
water
dya.
here
There is no drop of water here.
German: Es ist kein Tropfen Wasser hier. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 56

Example 1-186:
Hoe ply den boote man de?
O-pe
q-place
den
det.pl
botoman
boatman
de?
cop
Where are the oarsmen?
Dutch: Waar zyn de Neegers van de Boot? [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 109

Example 1-6:
Hoe ply slotelen fo jarri?
O-pe
q-place
sroto
key
fu
of
dyari?
garden
Where is the key of the garden?
Dutch: Waar is de Sleutel van de Thuyn? [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 43

Example 1-187:
Adea na tappoe.
A
3sg.sbj
dya
cop
na
loc
tapu.
top
It/(s)he is on top/upstairs.
Dutch: T'is boven, hij is boven. [op.cit.]

Source: Nepveu [1770] 1995

Example 1-188:
Na hupeh ju tatta?
Na
loc
o=pe
q=place
yu
2sg
tata?
father
Where is your father?

Source: Schumann 1781: 136

Confidence:
Certain