Datapoint Early Sranan/Predicative adjectives

The choice between Value 2 and 3 depends to some extent on the analysis of predicative property items (adjectives) as verbal, and of de (< English there) as aspect marker vs. copula when preceding predicative property items. An analysis of de as aspect marker often seems appropriate. Combined with the many cases where de is not present at all, this means that copula-less predication forms the large majority. Alongside equivocal cases, sometimes de appears to be the copula however, in particular in Weygandt (1798).

Values

Variable copula

Example 1-32:
Joe lau te moesi.
Yu
2sg
law
mad
tumusi.
very.much
You are really mad.
Dutch: Je bent al te gek. [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 22

Example 1-181:
A no lepi jette.
A
3sg.sbj
no
neg
lepi
be(come).ripe
ete.
yet
It is not ripe yet.
German: Es ist noch unreif. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 176

Example 1-182:
Ma nou a de dotti.
Ma
but
now
now
a
3sg.sbj
de
asp
doti.
be(come).dirty
But now it is being/getting dirty.
Dutch: Maar teegenwoordig zyn ze Vuil. [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 101

Example 1-183:
Mie dee piekienso swakkie jetee.
Mi
1sg
de
cop
pikinso
little
swaki
weak
ete.
still
I'm still a bit weak.
Dutch: Ik ben nog wat zwakjes. [op.cit.]

Source: Weygandt 1798: 97

Example 1-184:
Alla Ningre de blakka.
Ala
all
nengre
negro
de
asp/cop
blaka.
black
All negroes are black. (i.e. The pot is calling the kettle black)
German: Ein Neger hat dem andern nichts vorzuwerfen. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 18

Example 1-185:
Alla Ningre blakka.
Ala
all
nengre
negro
blaka.
be.black
All negroes are black. (i.e. The pot is calling the kettle black.)
German: Es hat kein Neger dem andern etwas vorzuwerfen (wegen des Standes u. der Farbe.). [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 122

Example 1-79:
Wan hessi hessi lobbi no bun, a no holi langa.
Wan
indf.sg
hesi~hesi
quick.red
lobi
love
no
neg
bun,
be.good
a
3sg.sbj
no
neg
hori
hold
langa.
long
Fast love is no good, it will not last long.
German: Schnelle Liebe taugt nicht, u[nd] hält nicht Stich. [op.cit.]

Source: Schumann 1783: 66

Confidence:
Certain