89 Reciprocal constructions

This feature is described more fully in chapter 89.


This feature (based on WALS feature 106, by Elen Malsova and Vladimir P. Nedjalkov) considers reciprocal constructions (constructions translated with ‘each other’) and compares them in particular to reflexive constructions. Reciprocals may be coded just like reflexives (identity), they may be coded in one of thee subtypes of "special" constructions, or there may be both reflexive-like and special reciprocal constructions (overlap, second value). Finally, some languages have no special reciprocal construction and have to use two clauses (“iconic coding”, last value).


Martin Haspelmath and the APiCS Consortium


Reciprocal construction identical to reflexive10
Identical and special reciprocal construction9
Special reciprocal construction based on 'other'25
Special reciprocal construction based on 'companion'7
Other special reciprocal construction15
No reciprocal construction exists3

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details