121 Vowel height distinctions

This feature is described more fully in chapter 121.


This feature asks how many distinctions of vowel height (or aperture) are made in a language. The most typical vowel system has five vowels and three degrees of height (i, e, a, o, u), but systems with four degrees (i, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, u) are not uncommon either, and even five degrees (i, ɪ, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, ʊ, u) are possible.


Martin Haspelmath and the APiCS Consortium


Two vowel heights3
Three vowel heights31
Four vowel heights36
Five vowel heights6

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details