Negerhollands (or Virgin Islands Dutch Creole) is a Dutch-based creole language that is currently extinct. It used to be spoken on the islands of St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, the current US Virgin Islands, a former Danish colony. It was primarily spoken by the slave population labouring in the plantations. In the 19th century, there was a great drift to the town where English and English Creole were spoken Negerhollands became restricted to the decreased population of the rural areas. By the 20th century it was only generally spoken by the older generations. Occasional transfer still produced a handful of speakers up into the 1970s. The last speaker passed away in 1987. The default lect described in APiCS is the variety spoken in the 1920s by 60 – 81 year old speakers from St. Thomas and St. John, as documented by De Josselin de Jong (1926). Other documented varieties of Negerhollands are the acrolect spoken by white colonists in the 18th century, often referred to as “Hochkreol”(“High creole”), and the missionary variety used by the missionaries in their liturgical material, primers, and bible translations. The missionaries used Dutch creole in their sermons, services, and literature until the end of the first half of the 19th century.
|trill, tap or flap||r||ɾ|
|ʏ||lowered high front rounded vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)|
|Exists (as a major allophone)|
|Exists only as a minor allophone|
|Exists only in loanwords|
|Does not exist|