Reduplication in Bazaar Malay serves several functions:
(1) iconic function (plurality and distributivity) where the resulting word expresses indefinite plurality as in the case of budak-budak [child~PL] 'children/boys' and in some cases diversity as in bunga-bunga [flower~PL] 'various kinds of flowers'.
(2) Reduplication also produces indefinite pronouns by reduplicating question words as in apa-apa [what~PL] 'whatever/anything'.
(3) Word-class changing
reduplication can derive new words which belong to a different word class, for example (a) from noun to adverb as in pagi-pagi 'every morning' as derived from pagi 'morning' (b) from adjective to adverb as in plan-pla 'slowly' from plan 'slow'.
(4) Reduplication of verbs adds durative or iterative aspect to the meaning of the verb (see Khin Khin Aye 2005: 101)
(4) Reduplication of adjective or adverbs (if not class changing) intensifies the adjectival or adverbial meaning as in Examples 64 and 65.
Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 401
Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 404
Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 100
Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 101