Datapoint Singapore Bazaar Malay/Functions of reduplication

Reduplication in Bazaar Malay serves several functions:
(1) iconic function (plurality and distributivity) where the resulting word expresses indefinite plurality as in the case of budak-budak [child~PL] 'children/boys' and in some cases diversity as in bunga-bunga [flower~PL] 'various kinds of flowers'.
(2) Reduplication also produces indefinite pronouns by reduplicating question words as in apa-apa [what~PL] 'whatever/anything'.
(3) Word-class changing
reduplication can derive new words which belong to a different word class, for example (a) from noun to adverb as in pagi-pagi 'every morning' as derived from pagi 'morning' (b) from adjective to adverb as in plan-pla 'slowly' from plan 'slow'.
(4) Reduplication of verbs adds durative or iterative aspect to the meaning of the verb (see Khin Khin Aye 2005: 101)
(4) Reduplication of adjective or adverbs (if not class changing) intensifies the adjectival or adverbial meaning as in Examples 64 and 65.

Values

Word-class-changing function

Example 67-62:
Nanti dia habis, ini orang-orang kasi dia duit.
Nanti
wait
dia
3sg
habis,
finish
ini
dem
orang~orang
person~person
kasi
give
dia
3sg
duit.
money
Later, [when] he finished, these people gave him money.

Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 401

Example 67-63:
Dia plan-plan jalan turun jalan.
Dia
3sg
plan~plan
slow~slow
jalan
walk
turun
descend
jalan.
walk
She went down very slowly.

Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 404

Example 67-64:
Makan apa itu sama makan itu ah ah sikit-sikit punya itu biskit ah.
Makan
eat
apa
what
itu
dem
sama
with
makan
eat
itu
dem
ah
emph
ah
emph
sikit~sikit
little~little
punya
attr
itu
dem
biskit
biscuit
ah.
pcl
What [we] ate were very few biscuits.

Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 100

Example 67-65:
Lagi-lagi pergi pasar susah.
Lagi~lagi
more~more
pergi
go
pasar
market
susah.
difficult
More and more, going to the market is difficult.

Source: Khin Khin Aye 2005: 101

Example 67-59:
Dia mahu buang buku-buku dia.
Dia
3sg
mahu
want
buang
throw
buku~buku
book~book
dia.
3sg
She/he wanted to throw away all her/his books.
Example 67-60:
Dia dua-dua nama dua tempat ah.
Dia
3sg
dua~dua
both
nama
name
dua
two
tempat
place
ah.
pcl
The two names [refer to] two [different] places.
Example 67-61:
Ah! Lu hari-hari masak, lu tahu la.
Ah!
interj
Lu
2sg
hari~hari
everyday
masak,
cook
lu
2sg
tahu
know
la.
emph
Ah, (if) you cook everyday, you (will) know.
Confidence:
Very certain