Datapoint Kriol/Complementizer with verbs of speaking

Although the feature is about the indirect speech construction, it seems worth pointing out that in the majority of cases a speech verb is accompanied by a direct quotation; this quotation construction may or may not be marked with the quotation marker lagijat 'thus, like that' in addition. - As in indirect speech no shifting in tense/mood occurs, the only difference between the indirect speech construction and the direct speech construction is in fact the absence versus presence of distinctive quotation prosody (impressionistically, an upward shift in pitch range). Another phenomenon worth mentioning is that one verb, rekon, may be used both as a verb of speaking and a verb of thinking. All of these features are found in at least one of the traditional languages of the Victoria River Region, in Jaminjung.

Values

No complementizer

Example 25-263:
Thei reken i gota ngalanymuwa, bifo thei bin oldei getim.
Thei
3pl
reken
think/say
i
3sg
gota
have
ngalanymuwa,
echidna
bifo
previously
thei
3pl
bin
pst
oldei
always/hab
get-im.
get-tr
[At that place] they think there are echidnas, in the old days they used to catch them.
Example 25-253:
Ai bin telim yu thei bin fraiten.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
tel-im
tell-tr
yu
2sg
thei
3pl
bin
pst
fraiten.
frightened
I (just) told you, they were frightened.
Example 25-164:
Wal jad lilboi imin reken frog bin likimbat feis en pulumbat heya.
Wal
well
jad
dem
lilboi
little.boy
im=in
3sg=pst
reken
think/say
frog
frog
bin
pst
lik-im-bat
lick-tr-prog
feis
face
en
and
pul-um-bat
pull-tr-prog
heya.
hair
Well that little boy said/thought that the frog licked his face and pulled his hair.

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Example 25-317:
"A: sori" im reken.
"A:
interj
sori"
sorry
im
3sg
reken.
think/say
"Ah sorry" he says.
Example 25-19:
Ai oldei telim im "Na::, jed Nangari yu bin meikim krai fo jet lil bed."
Ai
1sg
oldei
always
tel-im
tell-tr
im
3sg
"Na,
no
jed
dem
Nangari
Nangari
yu
2sg
bin
pst
meik-im
make-tr
krai
cry
fo
dat
jet
dem
lil
little
bed."
bird
I always tell him: "No, that Nangari, you made her cry for that little bird."
Example 25-291:
"Yu got no bilij", imin tok lagijat.
"Yu
2sg
got
have
no
no
bilij",
ashes
im=in
3sg=pst
tok
speak
lagijat.
like.that
"You've got no ashes", she said.
Example 25-243:
"Holum taid!" im reken jad lilboi la im drim
"Hol-um
hold-tr
taid!"
tight
im
3sg
reken
think/say
jad
dem
lilboi
little.boy
la
loc
im
3sg
drim
dream
"Hold it tight" he said/thought, the little boy in his dream

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Example 25-240:
Gemen jad frog imin tok, "Digimat mi! Digimat mi! Mi stak la rok", gemen jad frog imin sei lagijad.
Gemen
supposedly
jad
dem
frog
frog
im=in
3sg=pst
tok,
talk
"Dig-im-at
take-tr-out
mi!
1sg
Dig-im-at
take-tr-out
mi!
1sg
Mi
1sg
stak
stuck
la
loc
rok",
rock
gemen
supposedly
jad
dem
frog
frog
im=in
3sg=pst
sei
say
lagijad.
like.that
The frog said "get me out! get me out! I'm stuck in the rock!", the frog spoke like that, in the dream.

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Example 25-119:
"Wal ai gin trai." Imin lagijat la olabat.
"Wal
well
ai
1sg
gin
can
trai."
try
Im=in
3sg=pst
lagijat
like.that
la
loc
olabat.
3pl
"Well, I'll try," he said to them.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Confidence:
Certain