Datapoint Nigerian Pidgin/Functions of reduplication

Reduplication has dozens of functions, including the derivation of nouns from verbs, adverbs, ideophones, and other nouns, the derivation of verbs from nouns, adverbs, ideophones, and other verbs, the derivation of adverbs from ideophones and other adverbs, and the derivation of ideophones from all word classes. Reduplication can be used to signal any one, or any combination of the following meanings: plurality, abundance, repetition, high quality, distributivity, frequentality, iteration, duration, habituality, intensity, speed, reciprocity (and others).

Values

Attenuating and word-class-changing function

Example 17-40:
Pipol ple̱nti ple̱nti nyàfù nyáfú.
Pipol
people
ple̱nti~ple̱nti
be.plenty~intens
nyàfù~nyáfú.
ideo~ABUNDANCE
There are very many people (there).
Example 17-41:
Ìm put ye̱lo ye̱lo klo̱t.
Ìm
3sg.sbj
put
put
ye̱lo~ye̱lo
yellow~att
klo̱t.
cloth
S/he wore faded clothes.
Example 17-39:
Dì wo̱sh wo̱sh we̱ à wo̱sh no bì smo̱l o.
the
wo̱sh~wo̱sh
wash.red
we̱
rel
à
1sg.sbj
wo̱sh
wash
no
neg
cop
smo̱l
be.small
o.
REALIS
I did a tremendous amount of washing.

Source: Faraclas 1996: 243

Confidence:
Certain