Michif

Michif is a highly endangered, perhaps moribund language, despite efforts to keep the language alive. In 2013, the number of speakers is probably below 100 – including a handful of young people who learnt it through a master-apprentice program. Michif is spoken by few people in a vast area, covering three Canadian provinces and two US states, and probably never by more than a few thousand people. The language is relatively homogenous. The default lect represented in APiCS is the one spoken on both sides of the Manitoba-North Dakota border, in and around the Turtle Mountain Reservation and in southwestern Manitoba. Two deviant lects are known to have existed, one in Camperville (a town in Manitoba where also speakers of the default lect migrated to) influenced by Ojibwe, and one in southeastern Saskatchewan, close to Cypress Hills. Most speakers in Saskatchewan, Montana and probably also Alberta (where no speakers could be found in the field survey) spoke the default lect, whereas a different variety, undocumented, may have been spoken in Minnesota until recently.

Glossed text (64.8KB, application/pdf)
No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

labialized voiceless velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
œlower mid front rounded oral vowel - Exists (as a major allophone)
ʰpvoiceless preaspirated bilabilal plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ʰkvoiceless preaspirated velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ʰtvoiceless preaspirated dental/alveolar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ʰtʃvoiceless preaspirated palato-alveolar sibilant affricate - Exists (as a major allophone)

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source