Gurindji Kriol

Gurindji Kriol is a mixed language derived from Gurindji (Pama-Nyungan) and Kriol (English-lexifier). It is spoken in the Victoria River District of the Northern Territory (Australia) by around 1000 people, mostly Gurindji people under the age of 40 who live in the Aboriginal community of Kalkaringi, but also Bilinarra and Ngarinyman people who live in the neighbouring communities of Pigeon Hole and Yarralin to the north of Kalkaringi. It is also spoken by diaspora groups living in the towns of Katherine (480km north-east of Kalkaringi) and Darwin (900km north-east of Kalkaringi). The default lect described in APiCS is the speech of 20-30 year old Gurindji women living in Kalkaringi. All examples are derived from a corpus collected by Felicity Meakins from 2004-2009. Gurindji Kriol remains an oral language only, with schooling, media and government services almost entirely in Standard Australian English (with provisions for interpreters). Older Gurindji people continue to speak traditional Gurindji, often in code-switching with Kriol. Kriol is the main language spoken by Aboriginal people across northern Australia including in Katherine and Darwin, and has a continuing influence on Gurindji Kriol, particularly in these towns.

Glossed text (74.8KB, application/pdf)
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Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
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