Mixed Ma’a/Mbugu

Ma’á/Mbugu is a mixed language based on a Bantu language with the same name. The mixed variety and the Bantu language share the same grammar and have two parallel lexicons. The language is spoken in the Usambara mountains of Tanzania. Speakers of Ma’á/Mbugu also speak Shambaa, the dominant language of the area, and Swahili, the national and official language of the country. Ethnologue reports 7000 speakers among 32000 ethnic Mbugu. The people are more or less concentrated in three different locations which also show some dialect variation: Rangwi, Bumbuli and Magamba. The default lect that we chose for description in APiCS is that of Magamba.

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No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

mbprenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿdprenasalized voiced dental/alveolar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ŋgprenasalized voiced velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿtprenasalized voiceless dental/alveolar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ŋkprenasalized voiceless velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
mpprenasalized voiceless bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ŋxprenasalized voiceless velar fricative - Exists (as a major allophone)

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source