Martinican Creole

Martinican Creole is spoken by some 400,000 speakers in Martinique, and approximately 200,000 diaspora speakers. The use of the language varies a lot according to geographical and social factors. It is predominantly spoken in the northern and southern countryside of Martinique, where most people are socially disadvantaged and use a variety close to the basilect. By contrast, the variety spoken in central Martinique (which is the island’s economic hub) is more acrolectal and is used by almost half of the population, mainly from the middle and upper class. As a consequence, Martinican Creole is rather heterogeneous. The default lect that we chose for description in APiCS is the variety closer to the basilect, spoken by 30-60 year old people from the countryside. Most examples are constructed by the authors, and some examples are from written sources taken from the most up-to-date body of scientific literature available on the Lesser Antillean Creoles.

No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

øhigher mid front rounded oral vowel - Exists only as a minor allophone
œlower mid front rounded oral vowel - Exists only as a minor allophone
œ̃nasalized lower mid front rounded vowel - Exists only as a minor allophone
ɥvoiced labiopalatal glide - Exists only as a minor allophone

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source