Ternate Chabacano

Ternate Chabacano is spoken by some 3,000 people in the town of Ternate, Cavite province, Philippines. It is one of the Spanish contact varieties that are spoken in the Philippines and known collectively as Chabacano. There are also some diaspora speakers in the United States and other migrant worker destinations. Chabacano is a minority language in the town associated with the traditional local community. All the Chabacano speakers in Ternate are multilingual in Chabacano and Tagalog, as well as other languages. Trends in existing domains can be characterized as multilingualism with dwindling domains: Tagalog and English dominate in many communication contexts. Spanish is no longer commonly spoken in Ternate. Chabacano is mainly used at home and in the neighbourhoods together with Tagalog. Chabacano is not part of the school curriculum in Ternate, but some teachers of the first grades use Chabacano unofficially. Ternate Chabacano is a spoken variety and it is rather difficult to find written samples in printed media, but personal letters and new media are one domain where the written form of the language can be found. Chabacano is written in different ways by different age groups. The default lect chosen for description in APiCS is the speech of older Ternateños living in the central barangays or neighbourhoods of Ternate. The language of the younger speakers of Chabacano has especially been influenced by English and Tagalog. Examples are from a spoken language corpus collected in Ternate between 2003 and 2006. Examples from other, written sources are indicated in the dataset, mainly Nigoza’s (2007) collection of folk tales and legends.

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Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
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