Diu Indo-Portuguese

With a small and close-knit population of around 180 speakers, Diu Indo-Portuguese is not characterized by regional variants, although an unspecified number of speakers have indeed migrated to other parts of the world. However, this is not to say there is no variation: the most relevant type is contextual, caused by the variable integration of features of Portuguese (e.g., some person marking on verb forms, some phonetic specificities, some lexemes...), in which a section of the speech community is fluent to differing degrees; in addition, the presence of speakers of the related Indo-Portuguese creole of Daman and speakers of other languages for whom Indo-Portuguese is an L2 also implies some variation. The description of the language in Cardoso (2009) and APiCS is based on recordings made in Diu between 2004 and 2008, with native speakers of all ages whose immediate family hailed from the territory and in contexts as free as possible from the normative pressure of Portuguese - this constitutes the default lect in this publication, in which variation is duly reported. Occasionally, reference is made to an older lect, which draws mostly on a short corpus published by Hugo Schuchardt in 1883 and, when they coincide, on the speech of the elder speakers.

No. Feature Value % lect Details Source
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

ʋvoiced labio-dental approximant - Exists (as a major allophone)
ɐnear-open central vowel - Exists only as a minor allophone

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source