Angolar

The Portuguese-based language Angolar is spoken by approximatively 5,000 people in the southwestern and the southeastern part of the island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. It is a maroon creole, that is, a creole that was spoken by slaves who escaped from slavery and rebuilt their own society in regions where they were free from the slave owners. Some Angolar speakers also live on Principe Island as well as in Portugal, especially in Lisbon.

It is not clear whether the language is still being passed on to the newer generations; the pressure from Santome, the other creole language spoken on the island, and from Portuguese is very strong.

Though Angolar is not mutually intelligible with Santome, it is closely related to and most probably derived from it (as the other two creole languages of the Gulf of Guinea, Principense and Fa d’Ambô). What characterizes Angolar is that an important part of its vocabulary is of Bantu, especially of Kimbundu origin. Note, however, that this influence concerns mostly the lexicon and not the morphosyntax of the language.

The default lect chosen for APiCS is the variety of speakers who at the time of my main fieldwork (in the early 1990s) were 50 years or older.

Glossed text (59.0KB, application/pdf)
No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

mbprenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿdprenasalized voiced dental/alveolar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ŋgprenasalized voiced velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿd͡ʒprenasalized voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate - Exists (as a major allophone)
ȷ̃nasalized voiced palatal glide - Exists (as a major allophone)
mpprenasalized voiceless bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿfprenasalized voiceless labiodental fricative - Exists (as a major allophone)

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source