Santome

Santome is a Portuguese-related creole language spoken primarily on the island of S. Tomé in the Democratic Republic of S. Tomé e Príncipe by some 60.000 people (2012), which corresponds roughly to one third of its population, and by an unknown number of speakers in the diaspora (e.g. Portugal and Angola). Compared to previous censuses (1991, 2001), the number of speakers appears to be dropping quickly, which is related to the ongoing shift to Portuguese, the official language. In fact, monolingual speakers of Santome are nowadays hard to find. As a non-official language, Santome is essentially an informally used spoken language that is growingly confined from a geographical, generational and functional perspective, which means it is more likely to find fluent speakers in non-urban settings and among older generations. Music is the one of the few domains where the language is still thriving. The data used in APiCS (default lect) were generally drawn from transcriptions of mostly 40 to 80 year old native speakers from different non-urban areas of S. Tomé who were recorded in 1997 and 2001. A few written sources were used as well. Whenever necessary, the data for the atlas were double-checked or elicited with the help of other native speakers. The speech varieties of the recorded L1 speakers and the consultants are relatively homogeneous but should be seen within a wider picture of L1/L2 variation, language attrition and change.

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No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

mbprenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿdprenasalized voiced dental/alveolar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ŋgprenasalized voiced velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿzprenasalized voiced dental/alveolar sibilant fricative - Exists (as a major allophone)
ʎvoiced palatal lateral approximant - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿtprenasalized voiceless dental/alveolar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ŋkprenasalized voiceless velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ɗvoiced dental/alveolar implosive plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
mpprenasalized voiceless bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿfprenasalized voiceless labiodental fricative - Exists (as a major allophone)
ⁿʒprenasalized voiced palato-alveolar fricative - Exists (as a major allophone)

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source