Berbice Dutch

Berbice Dutch is extinct, its last speakers having died in the first decade of the twentyfirst century. The fieldwork on which the APiCS description of this language is based was carried out in the period 1986-1991 by the author and in the mid 1970s by Ian E. Robertson with speakers on the Berbice River and the Wiruni Creek, the latter a tributary of the Berbice River, in Guyana. Some minor differences exist between Berbice River and Wiruni Creek speakers, notably in the form of the 1PL and 3PL pronouns and in the loss of final unstressed vowels in some forms used by Berbice River speakers. Whether these differences are of recent vintage or represent the continuation of older dialect differences cannot be ascertained, given that an older corpus does not exist. In the description, data from Berbice River and Wiruni Creek speakers are used without distinction.

No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

ɹvoiced dental/alveolar approximant - Exists (as a major allophone)

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source